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Question: Discuss about the Networking Topologies Information Systems. Answer: Introduction: The advantages of the Star topologies are that, performance of the start topology depends on the efficiency of the central node. This is because the server is placed in the central node. The star topology can be very easily and efficiently expanded (Alexander, 2014). The central location of the server makes it very easy for the network to perform an efficient monitoring process. In case a single node fails, the full is not effected to a great extent. The disadvantages of the star topologies are that, the over dependency at the center of increases the amount of risk for the network. The cost required to implement the topology is very high. The network efficiency depends on the central node only. The advantages of the Bus topology are that, as the bus topology is very linear the implementation of the topology is very easy. The linearity of the toplogy7 increases the efficiency of the topology. The implementation cost of the topology is also very low. The disadvantages of the Bus Topology are that, the nodes are connected serially and hence, the error detection in the nodes are very difficult (Baez, 2014). The cost of maintenance of the network increases with the increase of time. This topology is not suitable for the networks in which the traffic is very high. The security concerns of among the nodes in this topology are very high. The advantages of the Mesh topology are that, the data transmission in the network can be done very easily in the network. Alternate links and nodes are always available within the network and hence always an alternate way of transmission is available in the network. Any kind of expansion or modification in the network would not require to alter the network model on a whole. The disadvantages of the Mesh Topologies are that, the Mesh topology has very high level of redundancy. The cost of implementing the network are greater than the cost of implementing the other networks. The maintenance of the network is also very complex. During the transfer in a network the data packets are subjected to a lot of movements (Bueger, 2014). In addition to the upward and the downward movement, the data packets also experience the sideways movement. In the application layer of the sender the data packets are being generated. The data packet then traverses through the layers and reaches the network layer finally. During the traversal the data packets are added with some extra bits. This adding of extra bits is known as data encapsulation. The encapsulated data is then transferred from the network layer. The recipient receives the data packet in the network layer. From the network layer, the data travels to the application layer. The extra bits are removed from the data packets for each layer of traversal. This method is known as the decapsulation method. The data is finally received in the application layer of the recipient machine. The techniques of encapsulation and the decapsulation for transfer of the data packets in the network are different from the techniques of multiplexing and the demultiplexing. The demultiplexing and the multiplexing are generally involved with the simplification of the complex data signals. In addition to this, the encapsulation and the decapsulation techniques are basically related with the data security. The OSI network model and the TCP/IP model are almost similar to each other, but the OSI model provides more number of layers than the TCP/IP model does (Holigan, 2015). The more number of layers provides more number of options and also more number of functionalities for the network. In addition to this, the model provides more functionality for each of the layers. However, the TCP/IP is the more preferred one as the OSI model is theoretically more efficient, but the practical implementation of the model is very difficult. In addition to this the TCP/IP model is very easy to implement. Hence, the TCP/IP is the more preferred one. The main advantage of the OSI model is that the model provides a large number of functionality and also provides more option than the others but, the practical implementation of the model is very difficult. The advantage of the TCP/IP model is that it is very easy to implement but the main disadvantage of the TCP/IP model is that it is very slow and also the security of the model is less than the other model. Bibliography Alexander, P. M. (2014). Actor-network theory in information systems research. Baez, J. C. (2014). Network theory.Network. Bueger, C. (2013). Actor?Network Theory, Methodology, and International Organization.International Political Sociology,7(3), 338-342. Gilbert, D. U., Behnam, M. (2013). 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